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= Apple II series =
 
= Apple II series =
  
Designed by Steve Wozniak, the Apple II series was both one of the first mass-market 8-bit microcomputers and the longest-lived.  The machines exemplified Wozniak's design sensibilities of not including hardware when software can perform the same function, and of being wide open for expansion.
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Designed by Steve Wozniak, the Apple II series was both one of the first mass-market 8-bit microcomputers and the longest-lived.  The machines exemplified Wozniak's design sensibilities of not including hardware when software can perform the same function, and of being wide open for expansion.  Elements of the II's design influenced many later computers; PCs today have expansion slots in part because the Apple II did, for instance.
  
 
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__TOC__
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* '''Apple II''' (1977 - driver name ''apple2'')
 
* '''Apple II''' (1977 - driver name ''apple2'')
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::- The original machine.  Includes a 6502 CPU, 8 expansion slots, up to 48KiB of RAM on the motherboard, cassette and game controller I/O, a 1-bit speaker clicker, and video modes including 40x24 text, 40x48 16-color "lo-res" graphics, and 6 color (8 but there's two blacks and two whites) 280x192 "hi-res" graphics.  In addition, lo or hi-res graphics could be displayed along with 4 lines of text at the bottom.
 
* '''Apple II Plus''' (1979 - driver name ''apple2p'')
 
* '''Apple II Plus''' (1979 - driver name ''apple2p'')
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::- Mostly a ROM change; Wozniak's Integer BASIC was replaced with a licensed version of Microsoft BASIC, and the system's firmware was extended to be able to auto-boot from cards with a certain set of signature bytes in their firmware ROM.
 
* '''Apple IIe''' (1983 - driver names ''apple2e'', ''apple2ee'', ''apple2ep'')
 
* '''Apple IIe''' (1983 - driver names ''apple2e'', ''apple2ee'', ''apple2ep'')
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::- Condensed a large portion of the previous systems (which were primarily off-the-shelf 74-series TTL chips) into two custom ICs, "IOU" and "MMU".  Slot 0, which on the II and II Plus normally contained a 16K "language card" to expand the system to 64 KiB, was eliminated and 64 KiB is on board in a configuration compatible with the language card.  The system also supports a second 64 KiB of RAM for a total of 128 KiB, and brings in a series of double-resolution video modes inspired by the ill-fated Apple ///.  These include 80x24 text, 80x48 16-color "double-lo-res" graphics, and 560x192 16-color "double-hi-res" graphics.<br />The IIe was later "enhanced"; this replaced the 6502 CPU with a WDC 65C02 that included additional instructions, and added GUI-drawing characters to the built-in text font.  Finally, a "platinum" IIe was released that came in a revised gray case (instead of the previous beige) and had the keyboard expanded to include a numeric keypad.
 
* '''Apple IIc''' (1984 - driver names ''apple2c'', ''apple2c0'', ''apple2c3'', ''apple2c4'')
 
* '''Apple IIc''' (1984 - driver names ''apple2c'', ''apple2c0'', ''apple2c3'', ''apple2c4'')
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::- This was an enhanced IIe with 128 KiB of RAM packed into a small "pizza box" style form factor.  Because there was no room for slots, the IIc included hardware equivalent to two serial cards, a mouse card, and a floppy disk controller and drive.<br />
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Later versions of the IIc included support for external 3.5" disk drives and a memory expansion slot which provided the equivalent of the 1 MiB Apple II Memory Expansion Card.
 
* '''Apple IIGS''' (1986 - driver names ''apple2gs'', ''apple2gsr0'', ''apple2gsr1'')
 
* '''Apple IIGS''' (1986 - driver names ''apple2gs'', ''apple2gsr0'', ''apple2gsr1'')
 
* '''Apple IIc Plus''' (1988 - driver name ''apple2cp'')
 
* '''Apple IIc Plus''' (1988 - driver name ''apple2cp'')
  
 
== The default configuration ==
 
== The default configuration ==

Revision as of 16:42, 21 September 2018

Apple II series

Designed by Steve Wozniak, the Apple II series was both one of the first mass-market 8-bit microcomputers and the longest-lived. The machines exemplified Wozniak's design sensibilities of not including hardware when software can perform the same function, and of being wide open for expansion. Elements of the II's design influenced many later computers; PCs today have expansion slots in part because the Apple II did, for instance.

Models

  • Apple II (1977 - driver name apple2)
- The original machine. Includes a 6502 CPU, 8 expansion slots, up to 48KiB of RAM on the motherboard, cassette and game controller I/O, a 1-bit speaker clicker, and video modes including 40x24 text, 40x48 16-color "lo-res" graphics, and 6 color (8 but there's two blacks and two whites) 280x192 "hi-res" graphics. In addition, lo or hi-res graphics could be displayed along with 4 lines of text at the bottom.
  • Apple II Plus (1979 - driver name apple2p)
- Mostly a ROM change; Wozniak's Integer BASIC was replaced with a licensed version of Microsoft BASIC, and the system's firmware was extended to be able to auto-boot from cards with a certain set of signature bytes in their firmware ROM.
  • Apple IIe (1983 - driver names apple2e, apple2ee, apple2ep)
- Condensed a large portion of the previous systems (which were primarily off-the-shelf 74-series TTL chips) into two custom ICs, "IOU" and "MMU". Slot 0, which on the II and II Plus normally contained a 16K "language card" to expand the system to 64 KiB, was eliminated and 64 KiB is on board in a configuration compatible with the language card. The system also supports a second 64 KiB of RAM for a total of 128 KiB, and brings in a series of double-resolution video modes inspired by the ill-fated Apple ///. These include 80x24 text, 80x48 16-color "double-lo-res" graphics, and 560x192 16-color "double-hi-res" graphics.
The IIe was later "enhanced"; this replaced the 6502 CPU with a WDC 65C02 that included additional instructions, and added GUI-drawing characters to the built-in text font. Finally, a "platinum" IIe was released that came in a revised gray case (instead of the previous beige) and had the keyboard expanded to include a numeric keypad.
  • Apple IIc (1984 - driver names apple2c, apple2c0, apple2c3, apple2c4)
- This was an enhanced IIe with 128 KiB of RAM packed into a small "pizza box" style form factor. Because there was no room for slots, the IIc included hardware equivalent to two serial cards, a mouse card, and a floppy disk controller and drive.

Later versions of the IIc included support for external 3.5" disk drives and a memory expansion slot which provided the equivalent of the 1 MiB Apple II Memory Expansion Card.

  • Apple IIGS (1986 - driver names apple2gs, apple2gsr0, apple2gsr1)
  • Apple IIc Plus (1988 - driver name apple2cp)

The default configuration